En Algérie, une nouvelle journée de manifestations est prévue aujourd’hui dans tout le pays. Cette semaine encore, l’enjeu est important, puisque le chef d’état-major a demandé à ce que le Conseil constitutionnel applique l’article 102 et déclare le président inapte à exercer ses fonctions. Une demande pour l’instant qui n’a pas été suivie d’annonce.

« Qu’ils partent tous ». Voilà le slogan phare des dernières semaines. Le discours d’Ahmed Gaïd Salah, le chef d’état-major, a donné le sentiment que la pression de la rue pouvait avoir un impact. Le président Abdelaziz Bouteflika, dont le 5e mandat était soutenu par tout un appareil, est désormais poussé vers la sortie. Et dans la foulée, les soutiens de toujours demandent à leur tour le départ du président.

Pourtant, pour de nombreux  manifestants, l’article 102 de la Constitution n’est pas une réponse suffisante. Parce que, s’il était appliqué, la transition serait dirigée par Abdelkader Bensalah le président du Conseil de la Nation, ou Tayeb Belaiz, le président du Conseil constitutionnel, deux proches d’Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Mais surtout, cette solution ne laisserait que quatre mois et demi avant l’organisation d’une élection présidentielle, un délai trop court selon certains manifestants, mais aussi pour les partis politiques d’opposition, qui craignent que la transparence du scrutin ne soit pas garantie.


■ Quelle est la stratégie des islamistes ?

Plus d’un mois après le début de la contestation, des partis politiques apparaissent désormais dans les manifestations et tentent de rallier la contestation populaire. Parmi eux il y a aussi les mouvements islamistes algériens ; certains, comme le MSP, parti qui a fait partie de l’alliance présidentielle et d’autres comme les anciens du Front islamique du salut, une formation politique dissoute en 1992 qui s’est opposée au régime algérien plongeant le pays dans une guerre civile. Ces islamistes de l’ex-Fis ne sont pas très nombreux dans les manifestations, mais leur présence a été remarquée ces dernières semaines.

Une vidéo postée sur YouTube il a 6 jours, un communiqué publié dimanche, des déclarations à la presse lundi, d’anciens membres du Front islamique du salut cherchent sans conteste à communiquer. Leur constat est que le pays fait face à un soulèvement inédit depuis l’indépendance. Un sursaut qui a ravivé « l’espoir d’un changement ». Quatre anciennes figures historiques du Fis (Abbassi Madani, Ali Belhadj, Kamel Guemazi et Ali Djeddi) appellent ainsi à mettre de côté les divergences politiques jusqu’à ce que le régime Bouteflika soit remplacé.

« Nous participons à ce mouvement de protestation depuis le début et même depuis longtemps, car nous avons refusé le quatrième mandat du président, affirme Kamel Guemazi. Si les chefs du Fis avait le droit d’apparaître dans les médias nous aurions exprimé notre refus d’un cinquième mandat du président Bouteflika. Nous cherchons à avoir une transition démocratique du pouvoir en Algérie. Le Front islamique du salut et une composante de la société algérienne. Le pouvoir algérien a dissous notre parti, mais ce parti existe et représente une couche sociale qui possède sa pensée et sa vision de l’avenir du pays. En Algérie, depuis l’indépendance, il n’y a jamais eu des élections libres et transparentes, sauf en 1990 suite au pluralisme politique de 1988. Ces élections ont été les seules libres et démocratiques de l’aveu du pouvoir et de l’aveu même la communauté internationale. La majorité des Algériens y ont participé et le Fis les avaient remportées. Mais le pouvoir à l’époque avait refusé le résultat. »

Appel à manifester pacifiquement donc et à ne pas marginaliser les partis politiques. Un positionnement clair en faveur de la contestation populaire qui ressemble fort à une tentative de récupération du mouvement.

Résultat, depuis quelques semaines la présence de sympathisants de l’ex-Fis a été relevée dans les manifestations, même si elle est toujours minoritaire. Et quand on leur demande quelles sont leurs intentions une fois le régime parti, les réponses se font vagues. Nulle part dans les différentes déclarations il n’y a d’allusion au projet de création d’un État islamique, l’un des fondements pourtant de l’ex-Fis aujourd’hui dissous.

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